’n Feministiese ondersoek na Bettina Wyngaard se misdaadfiksie





intersectionality, crime fiction, black feminism, black Afrikaans writing


The recent discourse on black feminism in Afrikaans literature is strongly influenced by powerful and activist-oriented writers like Ronelda Kamfer, Lynthia Julius, and Veronique Jephtas. With their poetry and public statements, they have shaped the feminist discourse significantly. However, the recent discourse on feminism in Afrikaans largely overlooks the contributions of certain black Afrikaans women writers. Bettina Wyngaard, a black Afrikaans woman novelist, attempts to disrupt this silence and through her literature and opinion pieces, she advances an alternative feminist stance. This article focuses on Wyngaard’s contribution to the recent feminist discourse and the ways in which she asserts her voice within the debate. In this article I refer to three of her crime fiction novels, namely Vuilspel (Foul play) (2013), Slaafs (Slavishly) (2016) and Jagter (Hunter) (2019). I analyse these texts in attempt to examine the feminist ideology underlying her literature. I argue that Wyngaard chooses crime fiction, a genre traditionally dominated by white males, in attempt to sanction her voice within the feminism debate in Afrikaans. In this article, I examine Wyngaard’s crime fiction within the context of third wave of feminism, which engages with popular culture as a tool for critique and to promote feminist ideology. I explore the feminist consciousness and ideology in Wyngaard’s novels and the ways in which she challenges established patriarchal conventions in crime fiction as a genre. I employ Anne Cranny-Francis’ framework in the feminist value of crime fiction to examine the feminist themes in Wyngaard’s work.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Courtneigh Ess, University of Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Courtneigh Ess is ’n PhD-student in Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands, Fakulteit Lettere en Geesteswetenskappe, Universiteit van Wes-Kaapland, Bellville, Suid-Afrika.


Avery, C. “Talking Back to Chandler and Spillane: Gender and Agency in Women’s Hard-boiled Detective Fiction.” Diss. Birkbeck U London, 2017. http://vufind.lib.bbk.ac.uk/vufind/Record/565465.

Bonthuys, Marni. “Postkoloniale feminisme in die Afrikaanse poësie: Die debute van Ronelda S. Kamfer, Shirmoney Rhode en Jolyn Phillips.” LitNet Akademies vol. 17, no. 1, 2020, pp. 241–61. https://www.litnet.co.za/postkoloniale-feminisme-in-die-afrikaanse-poesie-die-debute-van-ronelda-s-kamfer-shirmoney-rhode-en-jolyn-phillips/.

Chaudhari, Shamiega. “Plek, geheue en identiteit in twee gedigte van Diana Ferrus.” Stilet vol. XXV, no. 1, 2013, pp. 34–57. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC149688.

Colyn, Tania. “Die stem van die gemarginaliseerde. ’n Ondersoek na die konstruksie van identiteite van die vroulike figure in die werk van E. K. M. Dido.” MA-tesis. U Stellenbosch, 2010. https://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/1953.

Cranny-Francis, Anne. Feminist Fiction: Feminist Uses of Generic Fiction. Polity, 1990.

Ess, Courtneigh. “’n Interseksionele lees van Bettina Wyngaard se misdaadtrilogie”. MA-tesis. U Wes-Kaapland, 2021. https://hdl.handle.net/11394/8183.

Fletcher, Elizabeth. “South African Crime fiction and the narration of the post-apartheid.” MA-tesis. U Wes-Kaapland. https://hdl.handle.net/11394/4287.

Gibbons, Judith. L., Katelyn E. Poelker & Mogadi Moletsane-Kekae. “Women in South-Africa: Striving for Full Equality Post-Apartheid.” Women’s Evolving Lives geredigeer deur Carrie Brown, Uwe Gielen & Judith Gibbons. Springer, 2017, pp. 141–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58008-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58008-1_8

Hambidge, Joan. “Hardegat verse vol dinamiet en onrus.” Netwerk24. 1 Des. 2019. https://www.netwerk24.com/netwerk24/hardegat-verse-vol-dinamiet-en-onrus.

Heywood, Leslie. The women's movement today: An encyclopedia of third-wave feminism. Greenwood, 2006.

Horseley, Lee. Twentieth-Century Crime Fiction. Oxford U P, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199283453.001.0001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199283453.001.0001

Humm, Maggie. “Feminist Detective Fiction.” Twentieth-Century Suspense, geredigeer deur C. Bloom. Lumiere, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-20678-0_16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-20678-0_16

Jansen, Valda. “As ek opkyk, kyk ek in rûe vas”. Turksvy. 23 Apr. 2023. https://turksvy.substack.com/p/as-ek-opkyk-kyk-ek-in-rue-vas.

Kamfer, Ronelda. “Mense sien anger in my sadness.” Rapport. 5 Feb. 2023. https://www.netwerk24.com/netwerk24/stemme/profiele/ronelda-kamfer-mense-sien-anger-in-my-sadness-20230205.

Klein, Kathleen Gregory. The Woman Detective: Gender and Genre. U of Illinois P, 1995.

Koraan, R. & A. Geduld. “‘Corrective Rape’ of Lesbians in the Era of Transformative Constitution in South Africa.” P.E.R. vol. 18, no. 5, 2015, pp. 1931–53. https://doi.org/10.4314/pelj.v18i5.23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/pelj.v18i5.23

Kidelo, Tenita. “Chinatown (Ronelda Kamfer).” Tydskrif vir Letterkunde vol. 57, no. 1, 2020, pp. 147–9. https://letterkunde.africa/article/view/7904. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17159/2309-9070/tvl.v.57i1.7904

Knight, Stephen. Form and Ideology in Crime Fiction. Macmillan, 1980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-05458-9

Koontz, Dean. Writing Popular Fiction. Writers’ Digest, 1972.

Mirza, H. “Plotting a History: Black and Postcolonial Feminism in ‘new times’.” Race, Ethnicity, and Education vol. 12, no. 1, 2009, pp. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613320802650899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13613320802650899

Mohanty, C. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses.” Boundary vol. 12, no. 3, 1984, pp. 333–58. https://doi.org/10.2307/302821. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/302821

Nel, Hennely. “Die vertaling van diverse Coloured vrouestemme in die Afrikaanse poësie: ’n feministiese benadering.” MA-tesis. U Stellenbosch, 2022. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/126151.

Renegar, Valerie, Sowards, Stacey. “Contradiction as Agency: Self-Determination, Transcendence, and Counter-Imagination in Third Wave Feminism.” Hypatia vol. 24, no. 2, 2009, pp. 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2009.01029.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2009.01029.x

Roux, Alwyn. “‘jamme sê betieken fokkol’: Veronique Jephtas se Soe rondom ommie bos (2021).” Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe vol. 61, no. 3, 2021, pp. 948–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2021/v61n3a22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17159/2224-7912/2021/v61n3a22

Snyder-Hall, Claire. “Third-Wave Feminism and the Defense of ‘Choice’.” Perspectives On Politics vol. 8, no. 1, 2010, pp. 255–61. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1537592709992842. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592709992842

Spivak, Gayatri. “The Rani of Sirmur: An Essay in Reading the Archives.” History and Theory vol. 24, no. 3, 1994, pp. 247–72. https://doi.org/10.2307/2505169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2505169

Van Zyl, Dorothea. “Die gemarginaliseerde in die sentrum en andersom: Die konstruksie van identiteit in die romans van E. K. M. Dido.” Stilet vol. XVIII, no. 2, 2006, pp. 22–34. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC109828.

Vermeulen, Dalene. “’n Ondersoek na Ronelda Kamfer se poësie aan die hand van bell hooks se filosofie oor ras en taal.” MA-tesis. U Stellenbosch, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103340.

Van der Merwe, Barend. “Soe rond ommie bos deur Veronique Jephtas: ’n lesersindruk.” LitNet. 6 Sep. 2021. https://www.litnet.co.za/soe-rond-ommie-bos-deur-veronique-jephtas-n-lesersindruk.

Willemse, Hein. “Black Afrikaans Writers: continuities and discontinuities into the early 21st century—a commentary.” Stilet vol. 31, no. 1&2, 2019, pp. 260–75. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/ejc-stilet-v31-n1-a32.

Wyngaard, Bettina. Vuilspel. Umuzi, 2013.

Wyngaard, Bettina. Slaafs. Umuzi, 2016.

Wyngaard, Bettina. Jagter. Umuzi, 2019.

Wyngaard, Bettina. “Die gevaar van die enkele narratief.” LitNet. 19 Jun. 2019. https://www.litnet.co.za/die-gevaar-van-die-enkele-narratief/

Wyngaard, Bettina. “Oor feminisme 2023.” LitNet. 4 Apr. 2023. https://www.litnet.co.za/oor-feminisme-2023.




How to Cite

Ess, C. (2024). ’n Feministiese ondersoek na Bettina Wyngaard se misdaadfiksie . Tydskrif Vir Letterkunde, 61(1), 24–34. https://doi.org/10.17159/tl.v61i1.16619



Research articles